1 What does an immunisation policy need to be based upon?
b) The qualifications of the OH practitioner
c) Sound clinical evidence
d) The demands of the company
2 Who should approve the immunisation policy?
a) All stakeholders such as unions, management and OH
b) Human resources
c) Board of directors
d) OH physician
3 Since March 2007, what do all new NHS healthcare workers have to be screened for?
a) Chicken pox
b) TB and BBV (tuberculosis and blood borne viruses)
4 What factors influence the choice of vaccine?
a) Ease of use, availability and clinical effectiveness
b) Availability, packaging and cost
c) Clinical response, manufacturer reputation and cost
d) Clinical response, availability and cost
5 How is the need for vaccination in a particular employment group identified?
a) OH recommendations
b) Risk assessment
c) HSE recommendations
d) Outbreaks and epidemics
6 When administering vaccines, the practitioner should not be on their own. Who should the second person be?
a) Administrative support person
b) A nurse or doctor
c) First aider
d) Any of the above
7 When collecting biological monitoring samples, what in particular must the practitioner be conscious of?
a) Correct sample labelling
b) Standard (universal) precautions
c) Disposal of waste
d) Wearing gloves
8 When administering vaccines in a remote location, how should these be carried around?
a) In the boot of your car
b) In your picnic cool bag
c) In a cool-bag or box designed for vaccine transportation
d) In a plastic box with a locking mechanism
9 What type of thermometer should accompany the vaccines?
10 Which vaccine requires registration to be authorised to administer it?
c) Yellow Fever
d) Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
1. c – although all the answers need to be considered, evidence-based practice is part of clinical governance and quality assurance.
2. a – Company policies and procedures will only be implemented and followed if all those affected by them (ie, stakeholders) are signed up to them. List who you consider to be stakeholders in the policies you have to work with.
3. b – How do you define the term ‘healthcare worker’? Who would you consider a healthcare worker? Do you believe it applies to everybody in the OH team outside of the NHS or other healthcare settings?
4. d – Is this how your vaccines are chosen? If you do not have responsibility for this process, find out your company policy and the criteria by which it is decided. Can you influence this policy?
5. b – Consider your own company. Is your immunisation policy based on risk assessment? If so, who undertook that risk assessment, and is it adequate? When was it reviewed last? Were you or your OH colleagues involved?
7. b – Refresh your knowledge of standard or universal precautions using the resources below
9. b – Refresh your knowledge of the different types of thermometers that may be used in OH. Undertake a search and find out just how many different types of thermometers there are.
10. c – Visit the National Travel Centre website listed in Resources below, and find out more about Yellow Fever. Then visit the Health Protection Agency website, also listed below, and find out more about the prevention of the other three diseases.
www.hpa.org.uk The Health Protection Agency website gives a great deal of information on infectious diseases as well as a definition of healthcare staff from the Association of National Health Occupational Health Physicians (ANHOPS) www.anhops.com, which gave guidance and defines three categories of healthcare worker. You will find more details on the diseases mentioned in question 10. If you search for ‘standard precautions’, you can also download a PowerPoint presentation that explains it all.
www.nathnac.org The National Travel Health Network and Centre (NaTHNaC) provides health information for both health professionals and travellers. The information has been compiled by the NaTHNaC clinical and scientific team, and is updated regularly. You will be able to find information about:
- Health risks in your destination country
- General health and safety advice with health information sheets
- Reports of disease outbreaks
- A news and outbreak surveillance database.
www.nhsplus.nhs.uk The website for NHS Plus offers clarification for occupational health physicians on the Department of Health Guidance: Health Clearance for Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV: new healthcare workers. You can also download the document.
www.dh.gov.uk The Department of Health website allows you to download its guidance including the DoH (2007) Health clearance for tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV new healthcare workers. Go to www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_073132