Learning for Life: Effective supervision

Life Long Learning and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) are the
processes by which professionals, such as nurses, develop and improve their

There are many ways to address CPD: formally, through attending courses,
study days and workshops; or informally, through private study and reflection.
Reading articles in professional journals is a good way of keeping up-to-date
with what is going on in the field of practice, but reflecting and identifying
what you have learned is not always easy.

These questions are designed to help you identify what you have learned from
studying the article. They will also help you to clarify what you can apply to
practice, what you did not understand and what you need to explore further.

1. As well as safeguarding practice standards, clinical supervision is
also seen as:

a) A management tool
b) A disciplinary procedure
c) A process of professional support and development
d) Another nursing process

2. Which of the following were seen as barriers to introducing clinical

a) Suitability to occupational health
b) Not approved by HSE
c) Not written into employment contract
d) Time, money and lack of training

3. The three elements of Proctor’s model are?

a) Restorative, formative, normative
b) Restorative, formative, supportive
c) Supportive, formative, normative
d) Restorative, supportive, normative

4. What sort of interview was used in this study?

a) Structured
b) Semi-structured
c) Informal
d) Formal

5. The aim of clinical supervision is primarily to:

a) Develop dynamic practitioners
b) Share information and ideas
c) Check clinical knowledge
d) Police the profession

6. An external supervisor is someone who is:

a) Employed in the same organisation, but outside the speciality of
occupational health
b) A nurse who works in another OH department
c) Not a nurse
d) A line manager on another site

7. Johns argues that many practitioners have been:

a) Involved in developing policy
b) Monitoring their own effectiveness
c) Unable to accept responsibility for their own practice
d) Working unchecked

8. The normative aspect of Proctor’s model was confused with:

a) Quality
b) Benchmarks
c) Policy
d) Management control

9. What have this and all previous studies felt about supervisors?

a) They should have good facilitative skills
b) They should have a wide professional knowledge
c) They must be OH nurses
d) They should be the line manager

10. As the supervisee develops, he or she will become more:

a) Adaptable
b) Autonomous
c) Autocratic
d) Agreeable


1) c – There is a lot written about how clinical
supervision is perceived by many as a management tool, which it definitely is
not. Think about this carefully and explore the different definitions of
clinical supervision. Discuss what you believe it is with a respected
colleague. 2) d – These three things are the usual barriers to
continuing professional development (CPD). Reflect on this and how much it
influences the CPD in your place of work. 3) a – Obtain a copy of
Proctor’s model and read about it for yourself. Some help is given in the
resource guide on page 28. 4) b – This study used semi-structured
interviews. It is worth reading about interviews in a book on nursing research
to find out more. 5) b – If you read more about the process of clinical
supervision, you will see that the purpose is quite comprehensive – see the
resource guide. 6) a 7) c – Refresh you knowledge of the NMC code of
professional conduct and your professional accountability. 8) d 9) b 10) b

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