• The results of the 1999 pay and working time survey reflect the answers of senior managers in 212 organisations reporting on a workforce of more than 427,000.
According to the study, an increase in the opportunities for part-time work has been a major recruitment and retention tool in retail and the NHS.
Many respondents said they want to introduce more flexible working or individual pay but are deterred by the practical difficulties and uncertain returns from such a move.
The managers said most employee complaints relate to low basic rates of pay and long hours compared with other comparable organisations. But most said they believe staff are reasonably satisfied.