Learning for life: Musculoskeletal disorders

Life Long Learning and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) are the
processes by which professionals, such as nurses, develop and improve their

There are many ways to address CPD: formally, through attending courses,
study days and workshops; or informally, through private study and reflection.
Reading articles in professional journals is a good way of keeping up-to-date
with what is going on in the field of practice, but reflecting and identifying
what you have learnt is not always easy. These questions are designed to help
you to identify what you have learnt from studying the article. They will also
help you to clarify what you can apply to practice, what you did not understand
and what you need to explore further.

1. Traditionally the causes of computer-related injuries are:

a) High speed, low pressure, poor equipment
b) Low speed, high pressure, poor equipment
c) High speed, high pressure, poor equipment
d) High speed, low pressure, expensive equipment

2. David’s at risk of injury because:

a) He has no secretary
b) Of e-mail
c) His secretary is on leave
d) His secretary cannot use e-mail

3. Risk factors for WRULD include:

a) Static load, poor posture, stress
b) Static load, poor posture, home working
c) Static load, home working, stress
d) Home working, poor posture, stress

4. Static load is:

a) Lifting and handling
b) Unloading a vehicle
c) Moving a computer
d) Holding muscles with little or no movement

5. Kane (1984) reports that the strain on the neck can lead to pain in

a) Neck
b) Head
c) Arm
d) Wrist

6. Stress is:

a) The result of bad work
b) Highly objective
c) The result of overwork
d) Highly subjective

7. What skills do schools not teach today?

a) Language
b) Typing
c) Word processing
d) Secretarial

8. What is the limiting factor in voice recognition?

a) Open plan office
b) Noisy office
c) Hot desking
d) The general public

9. Which lucky NHS worker gets a PC on their desk?

a) Nurse manager
b) Physiotherapy manager
c) Departmental manager
d) Medical consultant

10. Who first identified mental stress as a key factor in the development
of musculoskeletal injuries?

a) Ramazzini
b) Trevethic
c) Pheasant
d) Harrington


A great deal has been written and researched about the effects of using
PCs and DSE/VDUs. Poor workstation and poor job design are the main culprits.
Refresh your memory and update your knowledge by undertaking a literature
search. 2. b David does not have any typing skills and this is an
additional factor putting him at risk of WRULDs. 3. a 4. d Refresh your
memory on the physiology and health effects of static load. 5. c 6. d
HSE publish an excellent resource pack Mental well-being in the workplace that
includes information how to deal with stress in the workplace. 7. b Can
you type? Can your colleagues? How did they learn? Is there a need for a
computer typing teaching package in your organisation? Would this help to
prevent WRULDs? 8. a Discuss with your colleagues the implication of
voice recognition software in your organisation and whether this would have an
impact on the OH department, either directly or indirectly. If OH is about
preventative rather than reactive health care, then what changes should the OH
department be considering with the introduction of such software? 9. d
No comment! 10. a

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