Learning for life: musculoskeletal injury

Life Long Learning and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) are the
processes by which professional people, such as nurses, develop and improve
their practice for the benefit of their clients.

There are many ways to address CPD, formally, through attending courses,
study days and workshops, or informally, through private study and reflection.
Reading articles in professional journals is a good way of keeping up-to- date
with what is going on in the field of practice, but reflecting and identifying
what you have learnt is not always so easy. The following questions are
designed to help you to identify what you have learnt from studying the
article. They will also help you to clarify what you can apply to practice,
what you did not understand and what you need to explore further.

1 In the bakery what action does NOT risk musculo-skeletal injury?

a) twisting
b) bending
c) reaching
d) stepping

2 What percentages of musculo-skeletal problems account for all sickness
absence in the bakery?

a) 25 per cent
b) 33 per cent
c) 40 per cent
d) 66 per cent

3 What observations were made of bad techniques for manual handling?

a) equipment was old and out-of-date
b) equipment was not working
c) equipment was not used or used incorrectly
d) training was not given on use of equipment

4 The Prochaska & Di Clemente model is a model of…

a) health & safety
b) change
c) working practices
d) nursing

5 Which of the following is NOT one of the stages listed in the Prochaska
& Di Clemente model?

a) contemplation
b) making change
c) action
d) relapsing

6 Using the Prochaska & Di Clemente model what was undertaken as part
of the preparation?

a) Safe systems of work
b) Health education
c) Manual handling retraining
d) Health surveillance

7 In this study which three measures of effectiveness were used?

a) opinion, sickness absence data, accident statistics
b) sickness absence data, accident statistics, financial cost of sickness
c) opinion, accident statistics, financial cost of sickness absence
d) opinion, financial cost of sickness absence, sickness absence data

8 This study seemed to suggest which group has the most musculo-skeletal

a) smokers under aged 40
b) smokers aged 40+
c) male smokers under aged 40
d) male smokers aged 40+

9 What financial benefits did the company see as a result of this study?

a) £6,000
b) £15,000
c) £9,000
d) £10,000

10 Professionally what was the most important outcome of this study?

a) less musculo-skeletal pain and a greater sense of well being
b) less musculo-skeletal pain and easier movement
c) a healthier lifestyle and a greater sense of well-being
d) better cardiovascular response and less musculo-skeletal pain


1d Stepping is a normal activity.
2b 33 per cent of sickness absence was due to musculo-skeletal problems
The Prochaska and Di Clemente model is a model of change. It is worth
following up the reference given and reading more about this model as it may be
useful in other health education initiatives, particularly those related to
behaviour change such as smoking and healthy eating.
5c In some interpretations of this model the stages of preparation and
making change are combined under the one heading of "action". Follow
up the reference and undertake a literature search for articles demonstrating
other types of studies that have used this model.

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