Learning for life: Musuloskeletal disorders

Life Long Learning and Continuing Professional Development (CPD) are the
processes by which professionals, such as nurses, develop and improve their

There are many ways to address CPD: formally, through attending courses,
study days and workshops; or informally, through private study and reflection.
Reading articles in professional journals is a good way of keeping up-to-date
with what is going on in the field of practice, but reflecting and identifying
what you have learnt is not always easy. These questions are designed to help
you to identify what you have learnt from studying the article. They will also
help you to clarify what you can apply to practice, what you did not understand
and what you need to explore further.

1. In 1999, 8,500 cases of what were reported?

a) Work-related upper limb disorders
b) Repetitive strain injuries
c) Work-related musculoskeletal disorders
d) Work-related manual handling disorders

2. How many days sickness absence in the UK in 1995 were attributable to
musculoskeletal disorders?

a) 900
b) 9,000
c) 900,000
d) 9 million

3. The COPE study groups had a sickness absence record that was:

a) Normal
b) Above average
c) Below average
d) Well below average

4. The aim of the study was to show that on-site treatment would:

a) Reduce days lost and accrue savings
b) Encourage staff morale and reduce days off
c) Accrue real savings and encourage healthier employees
d) Prevent people from going off sick

5. How was the sickness absence budget costed?

a) On previous costs
b) On national figures
c) On DSS figures
d) On location costs

6. How was the sickness absence budget calculated? Using a:

a) National formula
b) Generic formula
c) Company formula
d) Statistical formula

7. What improved as a knock-on effect of the study?

a) Time keeping
b) Accident rates
c) Staff morale
d) Health and safety compliance

8. How long does anecdotal evidence suggest one waits for NHS physiotherapy?

a) One week
b) One month
c) Six weeks
d) Six months

9. Decreasing staff turnover has lowered the outlay for:

a) Recruitment, training and agency cover
b) Recruitment, retirement and agency cover
c) Retirement, training and agency cover
d) Recruitment, training and retirement

10. Increased morale may be an indicator of

a) Decreased workload
b) Increased job expectations
c) Increased stress
d) Decreased stress


explore the website www.statistics.gov.uk if you have not come across it
before. 2. d) Carry out a literature search and update your knowledge on
sickness absence. 3. c); 4. a); 5. a); 6. b); 7. c) Improved staff
morale could be due to the "Hawthorne" effect. Revise your knowledge
of Hawthorne’s work (Handy C, 1992, Understanding Organisations 4th ed, Penguin
Books). 8. a); 9. d) Discuss the article and the study with a colleague.
Consider how far you would agree the Hawthorne effect was influential on the
results and how this could be overcome in similar studies.

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